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Ethereum Roadmap

The Merge

The Surge

The Scourge

The Verge

The Purge

The Splurge

Hard Fork Timeline

Execution Layer Hard Forks

Genesis
July 30, 2015

Ethereum's first block, also known as Frontier, occurred nearly two years after its ideation.

Hack and Fork
June - July, 2016

A large VC fund (The DAO) crowdsourced by the Ethereum community was hacked. A controversial hard fork was implemented to recover the lost funds.

EVM Upgrades
2016 - 2021

Six hard forks over five years upgraded the EVM and were independent of the Beacon chain, although a few changes at the end were preparatory.

Shanghai
Apr 12, 2023

Enabled validator withdrawals from the Beacon Chain, completing the transition to PoS.

Cancun
Mar 13, 2024

Scaled Layer2s through EIP-4844 with Blobs + other auxiliary improvements.

Prague
End of 2024

The community is still debating what exactly to include. Could go live at the end of 2024.

Osaka
End of 2025

Far out. Who knows! Verkle Trees are getting some love


Consensus Layer Hard Forks

Launch
Dec 1, 2020

This marked the beginning of Ethereum's transition to a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism, and the genesis of what is now the consensus layer.

Altair
Oct 27, 2021

The first upgrade to the Beacon Chain. It introduced several improvements, including sync committees.

Bellatrix
Sep 6, 2022

A preparatory upgrade for the Beacon Chain that set the stage for the merge.

Merge
Sep 15, 2022

The transition from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake, triggered by reaching the Terminal Total Difficulty, and was not a hard fork.

Capella
Apr 12, 2023

Enabled validator withdrawals from the Beacon Chain, completing the transition to PoS.

Deneb
Mar 13, 2024

Scaled Layer2s through EIP-4844 with Blobs + other auxiliary improvements.

Electra
End of 2024

The community is still debating what exactly to include. Could go live at the end of 2024.

F(tbd)
End of 2025

Far out. Who knows! Verkle Trees are getting some love


Recent Hard Forks

Cancun-Deneb

days hours minutes seconds

Deployment


Explainer Series

Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, Part V


Shanghai-Capella

days hours minutes seconds

Deployment


Upcoming Hard Forks

Prague-Electra

days hours minutes seconds ?

Deployment


Osaka-F(unknown)

days hours minutes seconds ?

Deployment


Key Organizations

For decentralization and redundancy sake, Ethereum opted for a multi-client approach. Every Ethereum upgrade must be coordinated and developed in tandem with the five teams in the appropriate layer.

Client Teams

Other Teams

Network Health

30 Day Inflation
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Gas Limit 30M
ETH Staked
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Lido Share
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Entry Queue
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Restaked Share
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Consensus APR
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L2s at Stage 2
Zero
Prysm Share
38%
Geth Share
63%
GitHub chatroom